Below is a list of our recent papers.

Decidual natural killer cells regulate vessel stability: implications for impaired spiral artery remodelling. Fraser R, Whitley GS, Thilaganathan B, Cartwright JE. J Reprod Immunol. 2015 May 12;110:54-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jri.2015.04.003. [Epub ahead of print]

Decidual natural killer cell receptor expression is altered in pregnancies with impaired vascular remodeling and a higher risk of pre-eclampsia. Wallace AE, Whitley GS, Thilaganathan B, Cartwright JE. J Leukoc Biol. 2015 Jan;97(1):79-86. doi: 10.1189/jlb.2A0614-282R. Epub 2014 Nov

Oxygen modulates human decidual natural killer cell surface receptor expression and interactions with trophoblasts. Wallace AE, Goulwara SS, Whitley GS, Cartwright JE. Biol Reprod. 2014 Dec;91(6):134. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.114.121566. Epub 2014 Sep

SMAD1/5 signaling in the early equine placenta regulates trophoblast differentiation and chorionic gonadotropin secretion. Cabrera-Sharp V, Read JE, Richardson S, Kowalski AA, Antczak DF, Cartwright JE, Mukherjee A, de Mestre AM. Endocrinology. 2014 Aug;155(8)

Expression of voltage-dependent potassium channels in first trimester human placentae. Mistry HD, Kurlak LO, Whitley GS, Cartwright JE, Broughton Pipkin F, Tribe RM. Placenta. 2014 May;35(5)

Increased angiogenic factor secretion by decidual natural killer cells from pregnancies with high uterine artery resistance alters trophoblast function. Wallace AE, Fraser R, Gurung S, Goulwara SS, Whitley GS, Johnstone AP, Cartwright JE. Hum Reprod. 2014 Apr;29(4)

Decidual natural killer cell interactions with trophoblasts are impaired in pregnancies at increased risk of preeclampsia. Wallace AE, Host AJ, Whitley GS, Cartwright JE. Am J Pathol. 2013 Dec;183(6)

Role of the eIF4E binding protein 4E-BP1 in regulation of the sensitivity of human pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL and celastrol-induced apoptosis. Chakravarthy R, Clemens MJ, Pirianov G, Perdios N, Mudan S, Cartwright JE, Elia A. Biol Cell. 2013 Sep;105(9)

Increased angiogenic factor secretion by decidual natural killer cells from pregnancies with high uterine artery resistance alters trophoblast function. Wallace AE, Fraser R, Gurung S, Goulwara SS, Whitley GS, Johnstone AP, Cartwright JE. Hum Reprod. 2014 Feb 12 Epub ahead of print.

Decidual Natural Killer cell interactions with trophoblast are impaired in pregnancies at an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. Wallace AE, Host AJ, Whitley GS, Cartwright JE. Am J Pathol Oct 5.

AKT isoforms 1 and 3 regulate basal and epidermal growth factor-stimulated SGHPL-5 trophoblast cell migration in humans. Haslinger P, Haider S, Sonderegger S, Otten JV, Pollheimer J, Whitley G, Knöfler M. Biol Reprod. 2013 Mar 7;88(3):54. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.112.104778.

Control of extravillous trophoblast function by the eotaxins CCL11, CCL24 and CCL26. Chau SE, Murthi P, Wong MH, Whitley GS, Brennecke SP, Keogh RJ. Hum Reprod. 2013 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Trophoblast induced changes in C-X-C Motif Chemokine-10 expression contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell de-differentiation during spiral artery remodelling. Wallace AE, Cartwright JE, Begum R, Laing K, Thilaganathan B, Whitley GS. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2013 Jan 3 (Epub ahead of print)


Caffeine inhibits EGF-stimulated trophoblast cell motility through the inhibition of mTORC2 and Akt. Grant I, Cartwright JE, Lumicisi B, Wallace AE, Whitley GS. Endocrinology 2012 Sep; 153 (9) 4502-4510


Impaired decidual natural killer cell regulation of vascular remodelling in early human pregnancies with high uterine artery resistance. 

Fraser R, Whitley GS, Johnstone AP, Host AJ, Sebire NJ, Thilaganathan B, Cartwright JE. J Pathol. 2012 May 31. doi: 10.1002/path.4057. [Epub ahead of print]

Altered placental expression of kisspeptin and its receptor in pre-eclampsia. Cartwright JE, Williams PJ. J Endocrinol 2012 Apr 23. [Epub ahead of print]

Extravillous trophoblast and decidual natural killer cells: a remodelling partnership. Wallace AE, Fraser R, Cartwright JE. Human Reproduction Update 2012 Apr 20. [Epub ahead of print]

The regulation of trophoblast migration across endothelial cells by low shear stress: consequences for vascular remodelling in pregnancy. James JL, Cartwright JE, Whitley GS, Greenhill DR, Hoppe A. Cardiovasc Res. 2012 Jan 1;93(1):152-61. Epub 2011 Oct

Elevated glucocorticoid metabolism in placental tissue from first trimester pregnancies at increased risk of pre-eclampsia. Mukherjee S, James JL, Thilaganathan B, Whitley GS, Michael AE, Cartwright JE. Placenta. 2011 Sep;32(9):687-93. Epub 2011 Jul

Shear stress and spiral artery remodelling: the effects of low shear stress on trophoblast-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. James JL, Whitley GS, Cartwright JE. Cardiovasc Res. 2011 Apr 1;90(1):130-9. Epub 2010 Dec

The role of tumour-derived iNOS in tumour progression and angiogenesis. Kostourou V, Cartwright JE, Johnstone AP, Boult JK, Cullis ER, Whitley G, Robinson SP. Br J Cancer. 2011 Jan 4;104(1):83-90. Epub 2010 Dec

Remodelling at the maternal-fetal interface: relevance to human pregnancy disorders. Cartwright JE, Fraser R, Leslie K, Wallace AE, James JL. Reproduction. 2010 Dec;140(6):803-13. Epub 2010 Sep 13. Review.

Trophoblast- and vascular smooth muscle cell-derived MMP-12 mediates elastolysis during uterine spiral artery remodeling. Harris LK, Smith S, Keogh RJ, Jones RL, Baker PN, Knofler M, Cartwright JE, Whitley GStJ & Aplin JD. Am. J. Pathol. 2010 Oct;177(4):2103-15.
Inhibition of trophoblast-induced spiral artery remodeling reduces placental perfusion in rat pregnancy. Verlohren S, Geusens N, Morton J, Verhaegen I, Hering L, Herse F, Dudenhausen JW, Müller DN, Luft FC, Cartwright JE, Davidge ST, Pijnenborg R & Dechend R. Hypertension. 56(2):304-10 (2010).
Effects of circulating and local uteroplacental Angiotensin II in rat pregnancy. Hering L, Herse F, Geusens N, Verlohren S, Wenzel K, Staff AC, Brosnihan KB, Huppertz B, Luft FC, Mueller DN, Pijnenborg R, Cartwright JE & Dechend R. Hypertension. 56(2):311-8 (2010).
Pre-eclampsia: Fitting together the placental, immune and cardiovascular pieces. James J, Whitley GStJ & Cartwright JE. J. Pathol. 221(4):363-78 (2010).
Cellular and molecular regulation of spiral artery remodelling: lessons from the cardiovascular field. Whitley GStJ & Cartwright JE. Placenta 31(6):465-74 (2010).
Soluble HLA-G regulates motility and invasion of the trophoblast-derived cell line SGHPL-4. McCormick J, Whitley GStJ, Le Bouteiller P & Cartwright JE. Hum. Reprod. 24(6):1339-45 (2009).
Trophoblast mediated spiral artery remodelling: a role for apoptosis. Whitley GStJ & Cartwright JE. J. Anat. 215(1):21-26 (2009).
 S-nitrosylation of proteins at the leading edge of migrating trophoblasts by inducible nitric oxide synthase promotes trophoblast invasion. Harris LK, McCormick J, Cartwright JE, Whitley GStJ & Dash PR. Exp. Cell Res. 314(8):1765-76 (2008).
First-trimester uterine artery resistance and maternal serum concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine. Prefumo F, Thilaganathan B, Whitley GS. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Feb;31(2):153-7.
The androgen and progesterone receptors regulate distinct gene networks and cellular functions in decidualizing endometrium. Cloke B, Huhtinen K, Fusi L, Kajihara T, Yliheikkilä M, Ho K, Teklenburg G, Lavery S, Jones MC, Trew G, Kim JJ, Lam EW-F, Cartwright JE, Poutanen M & Brosens JJ. Endocrinol. 149(9):4462-74 (2008).
S-nitrosylation of proteins at the leading edge of migrating trophoblasts by inducible nitric oxide synthase promotes trophoblast invasion. Harris LK, McCormick J, Cartwright JE, Whitley GStJ & Dash PR. Exp Cell Res. 314(8):1765-76 (2008).
Live cell image analysis of cell-cell interactions reveals the specific targeting of vascular smooth muscle cells by fetal trophoblasts. Hamzic E, Cartwright JE, Keogh RJ, Whitley GStJ, Greenhill D & Hoppe A. Exp. Cell Res. 314(7):1455-1464 (2008).
BeWo cells induce vascular SMC apoptosis via a Fas ligand-dependent mechanism. Harris LK, Keogh RJ, Wareing M, Baker PN, Cartwright JE, Whitley GS and Aplin JD. Human Reproduction. 22(11):2834-41 (2007).
Effect of heparin and fractionated heparin on trophoblast invasion. Ganapathy R, Whitley G StJ, Cartwright JE, Dash PR & Thilaganathan B. Human Reproduction. 22(9):2523-7 (2007).
Fas Ligand induced apoptosis is regulated by nitric oxide through the inhibition of Fas receptor clustering and the nitrosylation of protein kinase C-epsilon. Dash PR, McCormick J, Thomson MJCB, Johnstone AP, Cartwright JE & Whitley GStJ. Exp. Cell Res. 313(16):3421-31 (2007).
Soluble HLA-G and the control of angiogenesis. Le Bouteiller P, Fons P, Herault J-P, Bono F, Chabot S, Cartwright JE & Bensussan A.J. Reprod. Immunol. 76(1-2):17-22 (2007).
Hypoxia and placental remodelling. Cartwright JE, Keogh RJ & Tissot van Patot M. Adv Exp Med Biol. 618:113-26 (2007).
Soluble HLA-G1 inhibits angiogenesis through an apoptotic pathway and by direct binding to CD160 receptor expressed by endothelial cells.  Fons P, Chabot S, Cartwright JE, Lenfant F, L’Faqihi F, Giustiniani J,Herault J-P, Gueguen G, Bono F, Savi P, Aguerre-Girr M, Fournel S, Malecaze F, Bensussan A, Plouët J & Le Bouteiller. Blood. P. 108(8):2608-2615 (2006).
Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) regulates trophoblast invasion and motility through effects on nitric oxide. Ayling L-J, Whitley GStJ, Aplin JD, Cartwright JE. Human Reproduction. 21(10):2530-2537 (2006).

Cullis ER, Kalber TL, Ashton SE, Cartwright JE, Griffiths JR, Ryan AJ, Robinson SP. Tumour overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) increases angiogenesis and may modulate the anti-tumour effects of the vascular disrupting agent ZD6126. Microvascular Research. 71:76-84 (2006).

Ganapathy R, Ayling L-J, Cartwright JE, Whitley GStJ, Thilaganathan B. Effect of first trimester serum from pregnant women with high resistance uterine artery Doppler resistance on extravillous trophoblast invasion. Human Reproduction. 21(5):1295-1298 (2006).


Whitley GStJ, Dash PR, Ayling LJ, Prefumo, F, Thilaganathan, B and Cartwright JE (2007) Increased Apoptosis in First Trimester Extravillous Trophoblasts from Pregnancies at Higher Risk of Developing Preeclampsia. Am J Pathol. 2007 Apr 13 pdf_icon.gif

Keogh RJ, Harris LK, Freeman A, Baker PN, Aplin JD, Whitley GStJ and Cartwright JE (2007) Fetal-derived trophoblast use the apoptotic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to induce smooth muscle cell death. Circ Res. 100(6):834-41

Harris LK, Keogh RJ, Wareing M, Baker PN, Cartwright JE, Aplin JD and Whitley GStJ (2007) Invasive trophoblasts stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis by a fas ligand-dependent mechanism. Am J Pathol. 169(5):1863-74

Ayling LJ, Whitley GSt, Aplin JD and Cartwright JE (2006) Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) regulates trophoblast invasion and motility through effects on nitric oxide. Hum Reprod. 21(10):2530-7

LaMarca HL, Nelson AB, Scandurro AB, Whitley GStJ, Morris CA. (2006) Human cytomegalovirus-induced inhibition of cytotrophoblast invasion in a first trimester extravillous cytotrophoblast cell line. Placenta 27(2-3):137-47

LaMarca HL, Ott CM, LeBlanc CL, Nelson AB, Höner zu Bentrup K, Pierson DL, Whitley GStJ, Nickerson CA, Morris CA. (2005) Three-dimensional growth of extravillous cytotrophoblasts promotes differentiation and invasion. Placenta. 26(10):709-20

Crocker IP, Wareing M, Ferris GR, Jones CJ, Cartwright JE, Baker PN, Aplin JD. (2005) The effect of vascular origin, oxygen and tumor necrosis factor alpha on trophoblast invasion of maternal arteries in vitro. J. Pathol. 206(4):476-85

Johnstone AP & Cartwright JE. Intercalated medical students and biomedical science students: a comparison of examination performance at BSc degree level. Medical Teacher. 27(5):473 (2005).

Cartwright JE, Balarajah G. (2005) Trophoblast interactions with endothelial cells are increased by interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor and involve vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and a4ß1. Exp Cell Res. 304:328-36.

Barber K, Franklyn J, McCabe C, Khanim F, Bulmer J, Whitley GS, Franklyn J, Kilby M. (2005) The in vitro effects of tri-iodothyronine on epidermal growth factor-induced trophoblast function. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. . 90:1655-61

Ashton SV, Whitley GStJ, Dash PR, Wareing M, Crocker IP, Baker PN Cartwright JE. (2005) Uterine spiral artery remodeling involves the induction of endothelial apoptosis by extravillous trophoblasts through Fas/FasL interactions. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 25:102-108.

Dash PR, Whitley GStJ, Ayling LJ, Johnstone AP, Cartwright JE. (2005) Trophoblast apoptosis is inhibited by hepatocyte growth factor through the Akt and beta-catenin up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Cellular Signalling 17:571-580 pdf_icon.gif

Quenby S, Mountfield S, Cartwright JE, Whitley GStJ, Chamley L. Vince G. (2005) Antiphospholipid antibodies prevent extravillous trophoblast differentiation. Fertil Steril. 83:691-8.

Knofler M, Sooranna SR, Daoud G, Whitley GS, Markert UR, Xia Y, Cantiello H, Hauguel-de Mouzon S. (2005) Trophoblast signalling: knowns and unknowns. Placenta 26 Suppl:S49-51.

Quenby S, Mountfield S, Cartwright JE, Whitley GStJ, Vince G. (2004) Low molecular weight heparin, unfractionated heparin and aspirin have differing effects on extravillous trophoblast differentiation and motility. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 104:354-361.

Pijnenborg R, Aplin JD, Ain R, Bevilacqua E, Bulmer JN, Cartwright JE, Huppertz B, Knofler M, Maxwell C & Vercruysse L. Trophoblast and the Endometrium. Placenta 25:Suppl A, Trophoblast Research, 18:S42–S44 (2004).

Kostourou V, Troy H, Murray J, Cullis E, Whitley GStJ, Griffiths JR, and Robinson S. (2004) Overexpression of Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase Enhances Tumour Hypoxia: an Insight into the Relationship of Hypoxia and Angiogenesis In Vivo. Neoplasia 6:401-411.

Holden, DP, Cartwright, JE, Nussey SS, Whitley GStJ (2003) Estrogen stimulates dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase activity and the metabolism of asymmetric dimethylarginine. Circulation 108:1575-1580.

Kostourou V, Robinson SP, Whitley GStJ, Griffiths JR. (2003) Effects of over-expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase on tumour angiogenesis assessed by susceptibility Magnetic resonance imaging. Cancer Res. 63:4960-4699.

Millatt LJ, Whitley GStJ, Dechun L, Leiper JM, Siragy, HM, Carey RM, Johns RA. (2003) Evidence for dysregulation of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase I (DDAH I) in Chronic Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension. Circ Res. 108(12): 1493-8

Achan V, Broadhead M, Malaki M, Whitley GStJ, Leiper J, MacAllister R, Vallance P.(2003) Asymmetric dimethylarginine causes hypertension and cardiac dysfunction in humans and is actively metabolized by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biol. 23(8): 1455-9

Dash PR, Cartwright JE, Baker PN, Johnstone AP, Whitley GStJ. (2003) . Nitric oxide protects human extravillous trophoblast cells from apoptosis by cyclic GMP dependent mechanisms and independently of caspase-3 nitrosylation. Exp. Cell. Res. 287(2): 314-24 pdf_icon.gif

Dash PR, Cartwight JE, Whitley GStJ. (2003) Nitric oxide inhibits polyamine induced apoptosis in the human extravillous trophoblast cell line SGHPL-4 cells. Human Reprod.18:959-968. pdf_icon.gif

Tse WK, Whitley GStJ, Cartwright JE. (2002) Transforming growth factor beta-1 regulates hepatocyte growth factor-induced trophoblast motility and invasion. Placenta 23:699-705.

Chazenbalk GD, Pichurin P, Chen CR, Latrofa F, Johnstone AP, McLachlan SM, Rapoport B. (2002) Thyroid-stimulating autoantibodies in Graves disease preferentially recognize the free A subunit, not the thyrotropin holoreceptor. J Clin Invest. 110: 209-17.

Cartwright JE, Tse WK, Whitley GStJ. (2002) Hepatocyte growth factor induced human trophoblast motility involves phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, mitogen activated protein kinase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Exp. Cell. Res. 279:219-226.

Kostourou V, Robinson S, Cartwright JE, Whitley GStJ. (2002) Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase I enhances tumour growth and angiogenesis. Br J Cancer 87:673-680.

Achan V, Tran CTL, Arrigoni F, Whitley GStJ, Leiper JM, Vallance P. (2002). all-Trans-retinoic acid increases nitric oxide synthesis by endothelial cells: A role for the induction of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase. Circulation Res 90:764-769.

Purdie KJ, Whitley GStJ., Johnstone AP., Cartwright JE. (2002) Hepatocyte Growth Factor-induced endothelial cell motility is mediated by the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Cardiovascular Res. 54:659-668.

Morrish, DW., Whitley, GStJ., Cartwright, JE., Graham, CH., Caniggia, I. (2002). In Vitro Models to Study Trophoblast Function and Dysfunction. Placenta 23, Supplement A Trophoblast Res. 16, S114-S118.

Cartwright, JE., Kenny, LC., Dash PR., Crocker, IP., Aplin JD., Baker PN., Whitley GS. (2002) Trophoblast invasion of spiral arteries: a novel in vitro model. Placenta 23:232-235. pdf_icon.gif

Shiverick, KT, King, A, Frank, H-G, Whitley, GStJ. Cartwright, JE, Schneider, H. (2001). Cell Culture Models of Human Trophoblast II: Trophoblast Cell Lines. Placenta 22, Supplement A. Trophoblast Res. 15, S104-S106.

Manyonda IT., Whitley GStJ. & Cartwright JE. (2001) Trophoblast cell lines: a response to the workshop report by King et al. Placenta (2000), 21(Supplement A, Trophoblast Res. 14: S113-S119. Placenta. 22:262-263

Cartwright, JE., Johnstone, AP., Whitley, GStJ. (2000) Endogenously produced nitric oxide inhibits endothelial cell growth as demonstrated using novel antisense cell lines. Br. J. Pharmacol. 131:131-137.

Choy, M., Whitley GStJ., Manyonda, IT. (2000) Efficient, rapid and reliable establishment of human trophoblast cell lines using poly-L-ornithine. Early Pregnancy: Biology and medicine 4:124-143.

Millatt, LJ., Johnstone AP., Nussey, SS., Whitley, GStJ. (2000) Thyrocyte release of asymmetric dimethylarginine does not account for human thyrocyte inhibition of endothelial cell cyclic GMP production. Eur J Endocrinol 142:493-499

Lash, G., Whitley, G., Cartwright, J., Baker, P. (2000). Response to Dr Lala's letter - The effects of angiogenic growth factors on extravillous trophoblast invasion and motility. Placenta 21: 594-595

Leiper JM., Santa Maria, J., Chubb, A., MacAllister RJ., Charles, IG., Whitley GStJ., Vallance P (1999) Identification of two Human Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolases with Distinct Tissue Distributions and Homology to Microbial Arginine Deiminases. Biochem. J. 343:209-214.

Shepherd PS, Da Costa CR, Cridland JC, Gilmore KS, Johnstone AP. (1999) Identification of an important thyrotrophin binding site on the human thyrotrophin receptor using monoclonal antibodies. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 149: 197-206.

Lash, G., Cartwright, JE., Whitley, GStJ., Trew AJ., Baker, PN. (1999) The effects of angiogenic growth factors on extravillous trophoblast invasion and motility. Placenta. 20:661-667

Lash, G., Whitley, GStJ., Baker, PN. (1999) The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and placental growth factor (PlGF) in trophoblast invasion. Br. J. Obs. and Gynaecology. 106:1104-1105

Cartwright, JE., Holden, DP., Whitley, GStJ. (1999) Hepatocyte growth factor regulates trophoblast cell motility and invasion: a role for nitric oxide. Br. J. Pharmacol. 128:181-189.

Fickling SA., Holden, DP., Cartwright, JE., Nussey, SS., Vallance, P., Whitley, GStJ. (1999) Regulation of macrophage nitric oxide synthesis by endothelial cells: a role for NG, NG dimethylarginine. Acta Physiol. 167:145-150

Millatt, LJ., Johnstone AP., Whitley, GStJ. (1998) Nitric Oxide enhances thyroid peroxidase activity in primary human thyrocytes. Life Science 63:373-380

Murray AM, Kelly CD, Nussey SS, Johnstone AP. (1998) Production of glutathione-coated microtitre plates for capturing recombinant glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins as antigens in immunoassays. J Immunol Methods. 218: 133-9.

Da Costa CR, Johnstone AP. (1998) Production of the thyrotrophin receptor extracellular domain as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein and its interaction with thyrotrophin and autoantibodies. J Biol Chem. 273: 11874-80.

Holden, DP., Whitley, GStJ., Nussey, SS. (1998) Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine, a natural inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Am J Obst. Gynaecol. 178:551-556.

Cartwright, JE., Whitley, GStJ., Johnstone, AP. (1997) Endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression and lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells: effect of nitric oxide. Exp. Cell. Res. 235:431-433.

Cartwright, JE., Johnstone, AP., Whitley, GStJ. (1997) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by antisense techniques: investigations of the roles NO produced by murine macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 120:146-152.

Book Chapters

Cartwright JE & Wareing M. An in vitro model of trophoblast invasion of spiral arteries. In Placental and Trophoblast Methods and Protocols, ed Soares MJ, Hunt J. Methods in Molecular Medicine, Humana Press (2005).

Whitley GStJ. Production of Human Trophoblast Cell Lines. In Placental and Trophoblast Methods and Protocols, ed Soares MJ, Hunt J. Methods in Molecular Medicine, Humana Press (2005).

Cartwright JE & Whitley GStJ. Trophoblast-arterial interactions in vitro. In Placental Bed Disorders: Basic Science & Its Translation to Obstetrics, ed Pijnenborg R, Brosens I, Romero R. Cambridge University Press (2010).


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